Medical Conditions That Can Contribute To Secondary Osteoporosis
As well as certain medications, there are also identifiable diseases that can contribute to osteoporosis. Some examples include:
Cushing’s syndrome: Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder caused by high levels of cortisol (a corticosteroid hormone) in the blood.
Primary hyperparathyroidism: causes hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels) through the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone.
Clinical hyperthyroidism: overactive thyroid gland, as in Graves’ disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism. Too much thyroid hormone interferes with the body’s ability to absorb calcium into the bones.
Sex hormone deficiency (hypogonadism):
- In women: early loss of menstrual periods (amenorrhea); anorexia nervosa or exercise-induced amenorrhea.
- In men: low levels of testosterone hormone.
Spinal cord injury: the physical immobility that results can contribute to osteoporosis.
Malabsorption syndrome: diseases that prevent nutrients like calcium and vitamin D from being absorbed. Examples include celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
Type 1 diabetes: there is evidence to suggest that both men and women with type 1 diabetes are at higher risk for low bone density and for low-trauma fracture.
Turner syndrome: Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition characterized by complete or partial absence of the second X chromosome. Due to inadequate production of estrogen, many women with Turner syndrome develop osteoporosis and are at an increased risk of bone fractures.